Cro-Magnon Man and European Racial Heritage By Brian Simpson
This goes back a few years, but is still relevant. A Cro-Magnon DNA sequence of 28,000 years old was obtained from fossils discovered in Italy’s Paglicci cave. It was found that the fossil DNA sequence was identical to the DNA sequence of various modern Europeans, indicating lack of a change in DNA for at least 28,000 years. Well, if that is not a racial heritage, nothing is.
- Carameli (et al.), “A 28,000 Years Old Cro-Magnon mtDNA Sequence Differs from All Potentially Contaminating Modern Sequences,” PLOS One , 2008, 3(7): e2700. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002700
“The Paglicci 23 individual carried a mtDNA sequence that is still common in Europe, and which Cro-Magnoid to modern Europeans. Because all potential sources of modern DNA contamination are known, the Paglicci 23 sample will offer a unique opportunity to get insight for the first time into the nuclear genes of early modern Europeans.”
Further, regarding the Out-of-Africa hypothesis, A. Klyosov. (et al.), “Re-examining the “Out-of-Africa” Theory and the Origin of Europeoids (Causcasoids) in Light of DNA Genealogy,” Advances in Anthropology, 2012, 80-86, this hypothesis has been under constant challenge, but is still there showing that Thomas Kuhn was basically right; paradigms are not refuted, but go when the supporters die off:
“Seven thousand five hundred fifty-six (7556) haplotypes of 46 subclades in 17 major haplogroups were considered in terms of their base (ancestral) haplotypes and timespans to their common ancestors, for the purposes of designing of time-balanced haplogroup tree. It was found that African haplogroup A (originated 132,000 ± 12,000 years before present) is very remote time-wise from all other haplogroups, which have a separate common ancestor, named β-haplogroup, and originated 64,000 ± 6000 ybp. It includes a family of Europeoid (Caucasoid) haplogroups from F through T that originated 58,000 ± 5000 ybp. A downstream common ancestor for haplogroup A and β-haplogroup, coined the α-haplogroup emerged 160,000 ± 12,000 ybp. A territorial origin of haplogroups α- and β-remains unknown; however, the most likely origin for each of them is a vast triangle stretched from Central Europe in the west through the Russian Plain to the east and to Levant to the south. Haplogroup B is descended from β-haplogroup (and not from haplogroup A, from which it is very distant, and separated by as much as 123,000 years of “lat- eral” mutational evolution) likely migrated to Africa after 46,000 ybp. The finding that the Europeoid haplogroups did not descend from “African” haplogroups A or B is supported by the fact that bearers of the Europeoid haplogroups, as well as all non-African haplogroups do not carry either SNPs M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114, P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs) or M60, M181, P90 (haplogroup B), as it was shown recently in “Walk through Y” FTDNA Project (the reference is incorporated therein) on several hundred people from various haplogroups.”